Network protocols and proxies – System Design

Network protocols and proxies

Every system needs Network protocols and proxies to function. Network interface cards (NICs) enable communication among computer computers and boost the network’s speed and security by offering auxiliary services. This blog will discuss how network protocols and proxies help create safe and effective computer systems.

Network Protocols

Network protocols underpin all communication between networked devices, regardless of location or hardware/software. These guidelines make up the framework. These protocols provide the file formats required for data transmission and reception across the physical network infrastructure. It is essential to comprehend these processes to assess and build efficient technological systems.

Networking Models

The TCP/IP and OSI models are often mentioned when discussing networks. A multi-step procedure for developing network standards is included in both systems. With the top layers managing application-specific issues and the lower ones handling hardware-specific issues, these models provide a foundation for network connections.

TCP/IP Model

The four levels of the TCP/IP paradigm take their names from the two main protocols, TCP and IP:

  • Link Layer: The Link Layer controls the protocols used on a local area network (LAN) between endpoints capable of direct communication with one another without the assistance of a server. MAC addresses are used as an example in this layer.
  • Internet Layer: Using technologies like IPv6, the Internet Layer connects various IP networks.
  • Transport Layer: The Transport Layer uses protocols like the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The Transport Layer must provide the protocols required for direct Internet-wide communication channels.
  • Application Layer: The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a service layer protocol. Programs for data transport strongly depend on the protocols set up at this layer.

OSI Model

The seven levels of the OSI model provide a more accurate foundation for talking about networks than other models. However, the following details describing how each level operates are left out:

  • Physical Layer: The Physical Layer controls how raw data is sent between Ethernet devices.
  • Data Link Layer: The Data Link Layer connects computers with the same physical network. MAC IDs are used to create these connections.
  • Network Layer: The Network Layer creates connections between computers in different networks using the Internet Protocol (IP) to speed up the transit of data packets.
  • Transport Layer: The Transport Layer ensures data is sent securely and reliably utilizing protocols like TCP.
  • Session Layer: The session layer coordinates communications between computers.
  • Presentation Layer:  Before the Application Layer can use the data from the lower levels, the Presentation Layer must reformat it.
  • Application Layer: At the application layer, tools like HTTP make app functioning easier.


IP (Internet Protocol)

An IP protocol allows computers to connect across various physical networks. To do this, IP addresses are needed to specify the file’s structure and the destinations it must be transmitted to. Data packets may thus be transferred straight from their source to their destination.


The consistency of IP-sent data is maintained via the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). This is done by establishing a connection between the client and server and sending error-free and sequential data. Because of its efficiency and dependability, TCP is the basis for other protocols like WebSockets and TLS security.


Applications may track and alter data in transit via HTTP. Uniform resource identifiers (URLs) allow users to access particular data. To achieve this, one sends out queries and gets replies that are marked and packed with data. The HTTP, often called methods, tell the server what request was made.


A proxy server is a middleman connecting a client computer and an application server. They provide various services that improve a network’s overall performance and security.

Forward proxy

A forward proxy is used to aid communication between a collection of customers and the general Internet. Both the requests made and the replies given are looked at. These are often used to uphold terms of use, impose restrictions on potentially hazardous websites, and hide network data.

Reverse proxy

A reverse proxy is used as a gateway when a network of computers wants access to the broader Internet. Various services include SSL termination, load balancing, caching, request filtering, and attack security. By securing the network and obscuring server identities, they boost network performance.


It is impossible to exaggerate the value of network protocols and proxies in system architecture. All well-designed systems have these core features; they allow for frictionless user engagement, speedy connectivity, and reliable data security. A deep understanding of various servers and protocols is necessary for anybody interested in technological systems or considering a career in system design. Building durable and highly productive networks requires a thorough understanding of the function of the network protocols for system design and the significance of proxies